pingLu
  • Prof. Lu’s current research interests are in advanced guidance of aerospace systems, autonomous trajectory planning and optimization, flight control, and flight mechanics. The research aims at developing theory, methodology, and algorithms for highly constrained missions in a full-spectrum of aerospace applications covering space and atmospheric vehicles, powered flight (by rockets and airbreathing propulsion), and entry/ hypersonic gliding flight.

  • A hallmark of Prof. Lu’s research program has been meeting real-world challenges with innovative applied research. Prof. Lu has participated in a number of major programs in space transportation systems including the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator, Space Launch Initiative/Next Generation Launch Technology, Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (now Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle), and Evolvable Mars Campaign.
  • NASA Johnson Space Center Director’s Innovation Group Achievement Award, on numerical entry guidance algorithm developed by Prof. Lu (2016)
  • Elected to be a Fellow of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) (2016)
  • AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, “for contributions in advanced guidance algorithms for entry and ascent flight” (2008)
  • Ph.D., The University of Michigan
  • Advanced guidance and control
  • Autonomous trajectory planning, numerical optimal control, flight mechanics
  • Numerical optimal control, flight mechanics
  • Flight mechanics
  • P. Lu, “The Theory of Fractional-Polynomial Powered Descent Guidance”, accepted for publication by Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, October, 2019
  • P. Lu, “Augmented Apollo Powered Descent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2019, pp. 447-457.
  • C. Wan, D. Dai, and P. Lu, “An Alternating Minimization Algorithm for Polynomial Optimal Control Problems”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2019, pp. 723-736
  • B. Pan, X. Pan, and P. Lu, “Finding Best Solution in Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization by Two-Phase Homotopy”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2019, pp.283-291
  • P. Lu, “Propellant-Optimal Powered Descent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2018, pp. 813-826.
  • R. Pinson and P. Lu, “Trajectory Design Employing Convex Optimization for Landing on Irregularly Shaped Asteroids”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2018, pp. 1243-1256.
  • P. Lu, C. Brunner, S. Stachowiak, G. Mendeck, M. Tigges, and C. Cerimele, “Verification of a Fully Numerical Entry Guidance Algorithm”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 230-247, 2017.
  • X. Liu, P. Lu, and B. Pan, “Survey of Convex Optimization for Aerospace Applications”, Astrodynamics, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 23-40, 2017
  • X. Liu, Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Closed-Loop Optimization of Guidance Gain for Constrained Impact”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 453-460, 2017
  • X. Liu, P. Lu, and B. Pan, "Survey of Convex Optimization for Aerospace Applications", Astrodynamics, Vol. 1., No. 1, 2017, p. 23-40
  • B. Pan, P. Lu, X. Pan, and Y. Ma, “Double-Homotopy Method for Solving Optimal Control Problems”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2016
  • P. Lu, Cerimele, C., Tigges, M., and Matz, D., “Optimal Aerocapture Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2015, pp. 553-565
  • P. Lu, “Entry Guidance: A Unified Method”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2014, pp. 713—728.
  • X. Liu and P. Lu, “Solving Non-Convex Optimal Control Problems by Convex Optimization”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2014, pp. 750-765
  • P. Lu and X. Liu, “Autonomous Trajectory Planning for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations by Conic Optimization”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2013, p. 375-389.
  • Brunner, C. and Lu, P. “Comparison of Fully Numerical Predictor-Corrector and Apollo Skip Entry Guidance Algorithms”, The Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2012, p. 517-540 (published online 17 July, 2014)
  • P. Lu and B. Pan, “Highly Constrained Optimal Launch Ascent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2010, pp. 404-414
  • P. Lu, B. Griffin, G. Dukeman, and F. Chavez, “Rapid Optimal Multi-Burn Ascent Planning and Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1656-1664, 2008
  • P. Lu, “Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance for Low Lifting Vehicles”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1067-1075
  • P. Lu, D. Doman, and J. Schierman, “Adaptive Terminal Guidance for Hypervelocity Impact in Specified Direction”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2006, pp. 269-278
  • Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning for Sub-Orbital Flight”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, Issue 6, 2005, pp. 573-591
  • P. Lu, H. Sun, and B. Tsai, “Closed-Loop Endo-Atmospheric Ascent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2003, pp. 283-294.
  • J. Burken, P. Lu, and Z. Wu, “Two Reconfigurable Flight Control Designs”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2001, pp. 482-493.
  • P. Lu, and J. Hanson, “Entry Guidance for the X-33 Vehicle”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1998, pp.342-349.
  • P. Lu, “Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking Guidance with Application to a Launch Vehicle,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1996, pp. 99-106
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  • P. Lu, “Augmented Apollo Powered Descent Guidance”, in press, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 2018
  • C. Wan, D. Dai, and P. Lu, “An Alternating Minimization Algorithm for Polynomial Optimal Control Problems”, in press, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 2018
  • P. Lu, “Propellant-Optimal Powered Descent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, DOI: 10.2514/1.G003243, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2018, pp. 813-826.
  • R. Pinson and P. Lu, “Trajectory Design Employing Convex Optimization for Landing on Irregularly Shaped Asteroids”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, DOI: 10.2514/1.G003045, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2018, pp. 1243-1256.
  • B. Pan, X. Pan, and P. Lu, “Finding Best Solution in Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization by Two-Phase Homotopy”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, September 2018, DOI 10.2514/1.A34144
  • P. Lu, C. Brunner, S. Stachowiak, G. Mendeck, M. Tigges, and C. Cerimele, “Verification of a Fully Numerical Entry Guidance Algorithm”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 230-247, 2017.
  • X. Liu, P. Lu, and B. Pan, “Survey of Convex Optimization for Aerospace Applications”, Astrodynamics, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 23-40, 2017
  • X. Liu, Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Closed-Loop Optimization of Guidance Gain for Constrained Impact”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 453-460, 2017.
  • B. Pan, P. Lu, X. Pan, and Y. Ma, “Double-Homotopy Method for Solving Optimal Control Problems”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2016
  • X. Liu, Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Exact Convex Relaxation for Optimal Flight of Aerodynamically Controlled Missiles”, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2016, p. 1881-1892,
  • X. Liu, Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Entry Trajectory Optimization by Second-Order Cone Programming”,
  • Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2016, pp. 227-241
  • P. Lu, “Entry Guidance Using Time-Scale Separation in Gliding Dynamics”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2015, pp. 1253-1258
  • P. Lu, Cerimele, C., Tigges, M., and Matz, D., “Optimal Aerocapture Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2015, pp. 553-565
  • X. Liu, Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Solving the Maximum-Crossrange Problem via Successive Second-Order Cone
  • Programming with Line Search”, Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 47, Dec. 2015, pp. 10-20, doi:10.1016/j.ast.2015.09.008
  • P. Lu, “Entry Guidance: A Unified Method”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2014, pp. 713—728.
  • X. Liu and P. Lu, “Solving Non-Convex Optimal Control Problems by Convex Optimization”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2014, pp. 750-765
  • B. Pan, Z. Chen, P. Lu, and G. Bao, “Reduced Transversality Conditions in Optimal Space Trajectories”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2013, p. 1289-1300
  • P. Lu and X. Liu, “Autonomous Trajectory Planning for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations by Conic Optimization”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2013, p. 375-389.
  • B. Pan, P. Lu, and Z. Chen, “Three-Dimensional Closed-Form Costate Solutions in Optimal Coast”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 77, 2012, p. 156-166.
  • C. Brunner and P. Lu, “Comparison of Fully Numerical Predictor-Corrector and Apollo Skip Entry Guidance Algorithms”, The Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2012, p. 517-540 (published online 17 July, 2014)
  • M. Baldwin and P. Lu, “Optimal Deorbit Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2012, p. 93-103.
  • B. Pan, P. Lu and Z. Chen, “Coast Arcs in Optimal Multiburn Orbital Transfers”, Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2012, p. 451-461.
  • S. Xue and P. Lu, “Constrained Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol.33, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1273-1280
  • P. Lu and S. Xue, “Rapid Generation of Accurate Entry Landing Footprints”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 756-767
  • P. Lu and B. Pan, “Highly Constrained Optimal Launch Ascent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2010, pp. 404-414
  • B. Rademacher, P. Lu, A. Strahan, and C. Cerimele, “In-flight Trajectory Planning and Guidance for Autonomous Parafoils”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1697-1712
  • L. Zhu, P. Lu, Z. Jing and S. Hu, “A New Robust Adaptive Control Scheme for Non-Affine Nonlinear Systems Based on SHLNN Disturbance Observer”, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 2009
  • P. Lu, B. Griffin, G. Dukeman, and F. Chavez, “Rapid Optimal Multi-Burn Ascent Planning and Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1656-1664, 2008
  • C. Brunner and P. Lu, “Skip Entry Trajectory Planning and Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol., 31, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1210-1219.
  • P. Lu, “Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance for Low Lifting Vehicles”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2008, pp. 1067-1075
  • L. Zhang and P. Lu, “Fixed-Point Algorithms for Optimal Trajectories of Launch Vehicles”, Engineering
  • Optimization, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2008, pp. 361-381
  • P. Lu, “Asymptotic Analysis of Quasi-Equilibrium Glide in Lifting Entry Flight”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2006, pp. 662-670.
  • P. Lu, D. Doman, and J. Schierman, “Adaptive Terminal Guidance for Hypervelocity Impact in Specified Direction”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2006, pp. 269-278
  • Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning for Sub-Orbital Flight”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, Issue 6, 2005, pp. 573-591
  • Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “Dynamic Lateral Guidance Logic”, (invited paper in a special section on Reusable Launch Vehicle Guidance and Control), Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2004, pp. 949-959.
  • P. Lu, H. Sun, and B. Tsai, “Closed-Loop Endo-Atmospheric Ascent Guidance”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2003, pp. 283-294.
  • Z. Shen, and P. Lu, “On-Board Generation of Three-Dimensional Constrained Entry Trajectories”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2003, pp. 111-121.
  • P. Lu, and Z. Shen, “A Unifying Treatment to Control of Nonlinear Systems with Two Time Scales”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 25, No. 5, 2002, pp 975-979.
  • J. Burken, P. Lu, Z. Wu, and C. Bahm, “Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Servomechanism and Control Allocation”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2001, pp. 482-493.
  • P. Lu, “Closed-Form Control Laws for Linear Time-Varying Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2000, pp. 537-542.
  • L. Tian, P. Lu, and J. Burken, “Nonlinear Engine-Only Flight Control”, Nonlinear Problems in Aviation and Aerospace, edited by S. Sivasundaram, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, London, U. K., 1999.
  • P. Lu, “Regulation about Time-Varying Trajectories: Precision Entry Guidance Illustrated”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1999, pp. 784-790.
  • P. Lu and J. Burken, “Controlling Aircraft with Engine Thrust Only: Nonlinear Challenges”, Nonlinear Analysis, Vol. 35, 1999, pp. 21-35.
  • P. Lu, “Approximate Nonlinear Receding-Horizon Control Laws in Closed Form”, International Journal of Control (IJC), Vol. 71, No. 1, 1998, pp. 19-34.
  • P. Lu, and J. Hanson, “Entry Guidance for the X-33 Vehicle”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1998, pp.342-349.
  • P. Lu, “Intercept of Nonmoving Targets at Arbitrary Time-Varying Velocity”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 176-178, 1998.
  • P. Lu, “Nonlinear Systems with Control and State Constraints”, Optimal Control Applications and Methods, Vol. 18, 1997, pp. 313-326.
  • P. Lu, “Optimal Semi-Analytical Guidance for Reentry Flight”, Space Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1997, pp. 7-14.
  • P. Lu, “Tracking Control of Nonlinear Systems with Bounded Controls and Control Rates”, Automatica, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 1199-1202, 1997.
  • P. Lu, “Entry Guidance and Trajectory Control for Reusable Launch Vehicle,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 143-149, 1997.
  • P. Lu, “Constrained Tracking Control of Nonlinear Systems,” Systems and Control Letters, Vol. 27, 1996, pp. 305-314.
  • P. Lu and B. L. Pierson, “Optimal Aircraft Terrain-Following with Nonlinear Engine Dynamics,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1996, pp. 240-242.
  • P. Lu, “Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking Guidance with Application to a Launch Vehicle,” Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1996, pp. 99-106.
  • P. Lu and B. L. Pierson, “Aircraft Terrain-Following Based on a Nonlinear Continuous Predictive Control Approach”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 817-823, 1995.
  • P. Lu, “Optimal Predictive Control of Nonlinear Continuous Systems”, International Journal of Control, Vol. 62, No. 3, 1995, pp. 633-649.
  • P. Lu and B.L. Pierson, “Optimal Terrain-Following Analysis and Trajectory Generation”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 555-560, 1995.
  • K.C. Lin and P. Lu, “Inverse Simulation - An Error Analysis”, Simulation Journal, Vol. 65, No. 6, 1995, p. 385-392.
  • N.X. Vinh, E.G. Gilbert, R.M. Howe, D. Sheu, and P. Lu, “Reachable Domain for Interception at Hyperbolic Speeds”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-8.
  • P. Lu, "Nonlinear Predictive Controllers for Continuous Systems," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1994, pp. 553-560.
  • P. Lu, and M. Asif Khan, "Nonsmooth Trajectory Optimization: An Approach Using Continuous Simulated Annealing," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1994, pp. 685-691.
  • M. Asif Khan, and P. Lu, "New Technique for Nonlinear Control of Aircraft," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1994.
  • P. Lu, and K. C. Lin, "Nonlinear Control of an Autonomous Tracked Vehicle," Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, Vol. 16, No. 5, 1994.
  • P. Lu, "Analytical Solution to Constrained Hypersonic Trajectories," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics , Vol. 16, No. 5, 1993, pp. 956-960.
  • P. Lu, and N. X. Vinh, "On the Minimax Optimal Control Problem and Its Variations," Optimal Control ---
  • International Series of Numerical Mathematics, Vol. 111, ed. by Klaus H. Well, Birkhauser Verlag, Germany, 1993, pp. 99-112.
  • P. Lu, "Inverse Dynamics Approach to Trajectory Optimization for an Aerospace Plane," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1993, pp. 726-732.
  • P. Lu, "A New Nonlinear Optimal Feedback Control Law," Control-Theory and Advanced Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1993, pp. 947-954.
  • K-C Lin, and P. Lu, "State-Tracking Controller Design for A Tracked Vehicle", Journal of Control Systems and Technology", Vol. 1, No. 4, 1993, pp. 297-302.
  • P. Lu, "Use of Approximate Gradients in Trajectory Optimization," Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1992, pp. 1299-1301.
  • P. Lu, "Optimal Feedback Control Laws Using Nonlinear Programming," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications (JOTA), Vol. 71, No. 3, 1991, pp. 599-611.
  • P. Lu and N. X. Vinh, “Optimal Control Problems with Maximum Functional," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. l4, No. 6, 1991, pp. 1215-1223.
  • E. G. Gilbert, R. M. Howe, P. Lu, and N. X. Vinh, "Optimal Aeroassisted Intercept Trajectories at Hyperbolic Speeds," Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1991, pp. 1215-1223.
  • N. X. Vinh, P. Lu, R. M. Howe and E. G. Gilbert, "Optimal Interception with Time Constraint," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1990, pp. 361-390.
  • P. Lu and N. X. Vinh, “Minimax Optimal Control for Atmospheric Fly-Through Trajectories,” Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1988, pp. 41-58.
  • N. X. Vinh and P. Lu, "Chebyshev Minimax Problems for Skip Trajectories,” The Journal of the Astronautical Sciences (JAS), Vol. 36, No. 102, 1988, pp. 179-197.
  • N. X. Vinh and P. Lu, "Necessary Conditions for Maximax Problems with Application to Aeroglide of Hypervelocity Vehicles,” Acta Astronautica, Vol. 15, No. 5-6, 1987, pp. 413-420.